Journey of ISRO that bring new revolution in space research

40 years ago on 19 April, Indian Space Research Organisation ISRO) successfully launched Aryabhata, India’s first unmanned indigenous satellite from erstwhile Soviet was launched from Kapustin yar using a Kosmos-3M launch vehicle. It only happens due to the efforts of U.N. Rao.

On that time, Most of the people don’t know anything that What a Satellite is ! they also don’t know anything about building a satellite only U.R. Rao knows about the mechanism of building a satellite. A pact was signed between India and Soviet Union in 1972 , directed by UR Rao. This launch was a pioneer in the history of Indian space research which paved the way for us to explore the space and provide a better way of life for our people. From that day, our country never looks back and ISRO became the first space organisation to launch 104 satellite in one going.

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ISRO is getting ready to land its very first lunar rover by the end of March 2018, five years after the last landing by China. This will be ISRO’s first attempt to get a more delicate and precise up-close look at the lunar surface, after its first lunar probe Chandrayaan-1 which had managed to enter the lunar orbit and had detected some “magmatic water” on a moon crater, unfortunately, crashed into the Moon in November 2008, a few months after its launch.
According to ISRO, Chandrayaan-2 mission includes three unmanned vehicles including an orbiter craft that will hover above the surface of the Moon, a lunar rover, and a lander that will land the rover on Moon. The rover will explore the lunar crust and the mantle while the orbiter is designed to make a detailed three-dimensional map of the lunar surface.


So far ISRO has made a mark in the launch arena with its warhorse PSLV which through consistently delivering various satellites to Low Earth Orbits (LEO), particularly the IRS series of satellites. But to play a leading role in the global launch industry requires ISRO to build heavier rockets to launch heavier payloads into space. PSLV can take up to 1,750 kg of payload to Sun-Synchronous Polar Orbits of 600 km altitude. But the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III, also referred to as GSLV MK III, is designed to carry 4 tons into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO — where all the communication satellites have to reach to reach the 36,000 km circular orbit), or about 10 tons to Low Earth Orbit (LEO), which is about twice the capability of GSLV Mk II.

Semi-Cryogenic Project

After the much-celebrated launch of Falcon Heavy by SpaceX came the news that ISRO is also working on developing a super-heavy launcher that can carry payloads as heavy as 50 to 60 ton. “Right now, we are developing a semi-cryogenic engine, which was approved some time back. Next, we must propose [for funding approval] a full semi-cryogenic stage,” ISRO Chairman K Sivan said.

Reusable Launch Vehicle

ISRO has already successfully tested its first winged-body aerospace vehicle in 2016. Once completed, the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) own admissions is going to be a two stage to orbit system, like the Falcon 9. The 2016 RLV test demonstrated what is supposed to be the first stage. It takes off vertically using conventional rocket technology and once it reaches Mach 4, the supersonic combusting ramjet or Scramjet engines kick in to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 8–10. As opposed to a conventional rocket engine, a Scramjet engine collects air from the atmosphere at supersonic speeds, which then passes through the combustion chamber, where it will combust, expand and then be exhausted at supersonic speeds all in less than a millisecond.

Aditya – Solar Mission

Aditya is ISRO’s probe mission to the Sun by 2019-20. It was conceived as a 400kg class satellite carrying one payload, the visible emission line coronagraph (VELC) and was planned to launch in a 800-km low earth orbit. The mission, originally named Aditya-1, has now been revised to Aditya-L1 mission, and will be inserted in a halo orbit around the L1, which is 1.5 million km from the Earth. The satellite carries additional six payloads with enhanced science scope and objectives. The main objective is to study the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) and consequently the crucial physical parameters for space weather such as the coronal magnetic field structures, evolution of the coronal magnetic field etc. This will provide completely new information on the velocity fields and their variability in the inner corona having an important bearing on the unsolved problem of heating of the corona would be obtained.

Mars & Venus missions

ISRO expert committees have already reviewed the proposals received against the announcement of opportunity for developing scientific payloads for the future Mars orbiter mission. The committee selected a dozen scientific payloads for development and the mission will be focusing more on science in order to study in depth on the Martian surface, atmospheric / exospheric and ionospheric features. Configuration study of the satellite to accommodate the selected payloads is under progress.

Meanwhile, the selection process for finalizing the scientific payloads for the future Venus Mission is underway. The expert committee has reviewed the proposals received against the announcement of opportunity for developing scientific payloads and short-listed few proposals for the final selection.

 ISRO and NASA are working together for worlds most expensive space mission   NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR)  , NASA and ISRO have their work divided for this mission .

::::  In present time ISRO is in a club of top 4 best space agencies in the world , ISRO do not launch satellites for India only it provide facility to launch satellites to several Asian and European countries . ISRO also provide communication satellite and broadcasting satellite to India’s neighbors such as Nepal and Bhutan .


There are some achievement and failures of ISRO mentioned:


1. ISRO launches it’s first Earth Observation Experimental Satellite named ‘BHASKAR-1’ by Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV3) by Rohini Satellite which fails to placed in orbit.

2. ISRO launches an Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) named IRA-1A by Russian Rocket in 1988 which failed.

3. For the first time,An Indian rocket carried a communication satellite GSLV with INSAT-4C in 2006 which failed.

4. In 2017, ISRO fails to put a navigation satellite into orbit due to some malfunction in PSLV.

5. In 2017, ISRO lost despite a successful take off which cost Rs.270 Crore named GSAT-6A.


1. It launches India’s First Satellite in 1975, ‘ARYABHATA’

2. ISRO launches 9 satellite for communication and broadcasting purposes in 1983 known as ‘INSAT’

3. PSLV launched over 40 satellite from 40 different countries since 1993

4. ISRO launches it’s first Lunar Mission named ‘CHANDRAYAN’ which puts India in Elit club of six nation in 2008.

5. ISRO launched a successful mission to Mars known as ‘MANGALYAN’ which cost 10 times less then the same mission taken by USA in 2014.

6. It launches low cost space shuttle reusable launch vehicle at Rs. 95 Crore in 2016.

7. It launches a record 20 satellite from United State of America,Canada,Germany and Indonesia in 2016.

9. It successfully tests GSLV MK3 to enable India to send men to space by 2020.

10. ISRO launches 104 satellite in one go- the most by any space agency ever in 2017.